Status  Confirmed 
Seminar Series  SOUTENTH 
Subjects  physics 
Date  Tuesday 27 June 2017 
Time  14:30 
Institute  IPHT 
Seminar Room  Salle Claude Itzykson, Bât. 774 
Speaker's Last Name  Michele Mancarella 
Speaker's First Name  
Speaker's Email Address  
Speaker's Institution  IPhT 
Title  Tests de cohérence de l'Univers et reliques cosmiques 
Abstract  In the last decades, a cosmological model that fits observations through a vast range of scales emerged. It goes under the name of $\Lambda$CDM. \par However, there are still challenging questions that remain unanswered by this model, such as what causes the observed accelerated expansion of the universe. Indeed, a cosmological constant is the simplest explanation, but its value is difficult to reconcile with our knowledge of quantum field theory. For this reason, many alternative models have been proposed, where the accelerated expansion is induced by a dynamical field or by a modification of general relativity. Independently on any theoretical prejudice, these models are testable and several missions have been planned for the next decade. These will highly improve the constraints on the deviations from the $\Lambda$CDM model. \par My thesis concerns an approach known as ``Effective Theory of Dark Energy''. \par It is based on the idea that the large number of alternative models requires a simple, general and effective way to bridge theory and observations. It applies to all models where general relativity is modified by adding a single scalar degree of freedom. \par There are various reasons why it is valuable. First, it is general enough, as in encompasses most of the existing models. Then, it parametrises directly the relevant degrees of freedom at the level of linear perturbations in cosmology, in a nonredundant way. \par Finally, it is based on an action principle. Therefore, it allows a solid theoretical understanding of the viability of the theory. \par The first part of the discussion will cover the more theoretical aspects. I will first review the most general class of scalartensor theories currently known. Then, I will introduce the effective description and show how it naturally encompass such theories. I will analyze the propagating degrees of freedom and address stability issues. Finally, I will show how to include a nontrivial coupling to matter in this framework. \par The second part will be dedicated to describe some observable signatures of deviations from $\Lambda$CDM. First, I will consider modifications of gravity combined to an interaction between dark matter and dark energy. I will provide an analytical understanding of the effects and analyze the constraining power that future experiments will have on the free parameters of the effective description. \par Then, I will focus on theories where a kinetic mixing between matter and the scalar field is present. I will illustrate and quantify a peculiar feature they have, namely the weakening of gravity at scales relevant for redshift surveys. 
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